How to Read a Cross Stitch Pattern

Funk & Weber THE GREAT OUTDOORS pattern - Title and Image

The Great Outdoors pattern, with an as-big-as-possible image on the cover.

Counted cross stitch patterns—sometimes called cross stitch charts–come in many styles and formats. You’ll find them online, in books and magazines, packaged with materials as kits, and as individual leaflets or “chart packs,” which are generally unbound pages contained in a zip bag. If there aren’t stitching apps for digital patterns, there soon will be.

Anatomy of a Cross Stitch Chart

Despite the different looks and presentations, most cross stitch patterns contain the same basic parts and information:

  • Design image and title
  • Stitch count
  • Recommended fabric
  • Required fibers
  • Pattern (this might be called a chart or graph)
  • Instructions

Design Image and Title

With luck, the image will be large and clear. However, never rely on solely on the color you see. It is just plain impossible to consistently print accurate color, and digital colors will vary from computer to computer.

Instead, to get an accurate sense of pattern colors, gather the floss that is to be used. If you’re trying to match something, this is the only way to know for sure if the design colors are what you want.

Stitch Count

The Great Outdoors stitch count

Stitch counts are often on the back cover of a pattern. In this case, there was no room, so it's inside the front cover.

The stitch count is the number of stitches in a design, usually expressed as a-number-wide by a-number-high, or 214W x 128H. We use the stitch count to determine how much fabric we need. Yep, that links to a tutorial on doing the stitchy math.

Recommended Fabric

The Great Outdoors pattern, recommended fabric

The recommended fabric is usually what is used in the cover model. Don't be afraid to make fabric substitutions.

This is generally the fabric used for the cover model. Try not to cling too tightly to this recommendation. There are a gazillion fabrics out there—many very nice ones—and your local shop, if you are so fortunate as to have one, cannot possibly carry them all. Don’t be afraid to use an alternate fabric. Get the scoop on basic embroidery fabrics here, and learn how to make fabric substitutions with confidence. Most shop owners will be able—and happy!—to offer good suggestions.

  • You can substitute aida for linens and other evenweaves and vice versa.
  • You can alter the size of the finished piece by substituting fabric with a different stitch count.
  • You can alter the background color by substituting a different color fabric.
  • You can do all of the above in one fell swoop. Wow—talk about power.

Required Fibers

Required Fibers for the Puzzle Pisces cross stitch pattern

Fiber colors and symbols are listed on the back of the Puzzle Pisces pattern. Fibers for backstitches and French knots are below those for cross stitches.

Most of the time, a specific brand will be listed along with a color number or name, perhaps both.

Here, too, substitutions can be made. There are conversion charts for most of the big lines, and sometimes designers will list alternate choices.

Keep in mind, however, that your results can vary when you make substitutions, especially if you’re substituting solid colors for slightly variegated colors, or vice versa. This isn’t a bad thing: your result will just be different. Really, isn’t that part of the fun and adventure?

Be sure to read this section carefully. Look for backstitch colors and specialty fibers listed separately and recommendations to purchase more than one skein of a color. Colors can vary between dye lots, so if you need to purchase more than one skein of a color, get them at the same time so they’re more likely to be the same dye lot. Some fibers list the dye lot on the label, but most of the time you’ll have to eyeball it.

Tip: If you have no choice but to use fibers that are supposed to be the same color but clearly aren’t, probably because they are different dye lots, try blending strands from the different skeins together for a consistently mottled look. The result can be cool, turning this “problem” into a “plus.”

Cross Stitch Pattern, Chart, Graph

Do You See What I See? Illusions cross stitch pattern

This is the Do You See What I See? Illusions cross stitch chart. It has symbols and lines and a highlighted section that is the overlap from another page.

A cross stitch pattern has lines, symbols, dots, and sometimes color on a graph, and a key that defines these.

Cross Stitches and Backstitches

Each symbol represents a different color, and each symbol on the graph is a single cross stitch.

Lines are usually backstitches.

Unfortunately, diagonal lines can obscure—or completely cover—the symbols beneath them. Sometimes the mini symbols are used on either side of the line, especially if fractional stitches are used, but sometimes backstitches cross over a single whole cross stitch. It might be up to you to determine what color is beneath the backstitch line.

Don’t fret! You can do this. Really. Look at the surrounding symbols. What color makes sense to you? What color do you like in that spot? Trust yourself.

French Knots

Do you have bold dots on your chart? These are probably French knots. These are so frequently used, they usually aren’t explained. We have a tutorial on how to stitch French knots—I know some stitchers hate them—but they are wonderful things when mastered.

Specialty Stitches

In addition to symbols, backstitch lines, and French knots, you may have specialty stitches on your graph. These, too, are generally lines, but not long continuous lines like backstitches. Rather, they are clusters of short lines that look similar to the finished stitches. They might be slightly different lines (dashed or dotted) or perhaps a different color. Or not.

There should be instructions for how to work these in the pattern.

Pattern Overlaps

Sometimes, when a large design is split across a fold or presented on different pages, two or three rows of a design will be repeated on adjacent parts. These overlaps are usually highlighted (made gray) and noted with text.

These overlaps make it easier to line up and match the different parts of a pattern.

Tip: If it’s easier, you can cut out and tape together a large pattern so that it’s all on one large sheet.


Stitching instructions for the Bold Blackwork Baby Blocks pattern

Instructions for creating "runs" with the Holbein stitch for the Bold Blackwork Baby Blocks pattern. This is blackwork, not cross stitch, of couse, another counted thread technique.

This is where good patterns differentiate themselves. Sometimes instructions are detailed, sometimes not. It depends on many things:

  • the complexity of the pattern
  • whether there are specialty stitches involved
  • whether the design is intended to be finished in a particular way
  • if it’s intended to be a teaching piece
  • how much space is available for instructions—no kidding. This is especially true for magazine pieces and commercially-printed leaflets.

Instructions may include diagrams, images of models in-progress, and/or text. The very best instructions include all three.

Diagrams may look different depending on the software used to draw them. Some patterns, especially older ones, use hand-drawn diagrams.

Stitching instructions are a form of technical writing. Great, highly-knowledgeable embroiderers are not necessarily good technical writers. I wish weak writers seek help in crafting instructions and editing, but needlework is a DIY industry, often with tiny profit margins, so that’s not always possible or practical. (That said, if you need help, I am an editor.)

If you’re looking for more detailed instructions, consider a book or class (online or in-person). These venues and mediums generally allow more space for detailed instructions.

Tip: If you don’t understand the instructions on a pattern—or if there are none at all—seek help. Independent needlework shops are a great source of help (just one reason why we need them), as are stitching groups and guilds. And you can also ask here, on the blog or in an email (mail AT funkandweber DOT com). If I don’t have the answer myself, I almost always know someone who does.

A Final Word on Embroidery Patterns

As I said, this is a DIY industry. Many patterns are self-published by independent designers. Patterns are highly detailed things. A lot of work and proofing go into creating them. Hard as everyone tries, mistakes happen.

If you find an error in a pattern, check the designer’s website to see if a correction has been posted. If not, drop the designer a line and give him/her a heads up. Ask if you’re correct in thinking this is an error and if s/he’s aware of it. I don’t know a single designer who isn’t grateful for this kind of information.

When an error is discovered, it can be corrected. Labels are printed and added to already-printed stock; digital files are corrected; a correction is posted on the website so others with uncorrected patterns can find the required fix.

And that, stitchy friends, is the anatomy of a cross stitch pattern. What have I missed, and what questions do you have?

Related post: Keep Your Place On a Cross Stitch Chart

18 Responses to “How to Read a Cross Stitch Pattern”

  1. elaine Cripe

    am having problems keeping place on charts so what would I use to do this ? have used the Loran mag. and find I’m above and below line

    May 24, 2014 @ 3:26 am
  2. This is a great question, Elaine, worthy of its own post. Check it out here:

    May 25, 2014 @ 1:34 pm
  3. LauraD

    How do I follow a mirrored pattern to make the stamped design look & come out normal, I received a stamped article but the pattern chart is in a mirrored sequence

    April 30, 2015 @ 11:38 am
  4. Jen

    Hi, Laura.

    Interesting dilemma! If the pattern is stamped, do you need a chart?

    That said, one thing you can do is set the pattern up perpendicular(ish) to a mirror and stitch what you see in the mirror.

    What I would do is scan the chart and flip it in image-editing software (Photoshop, Photoshop Elements, Paint Shop Pro, PicMonkey, etc.). It will reverse the symbols inside the squares as well as the chart, but that may be easier to handle than a reversed chart.

    Did I understand your question correctly, and does this help?

    April 30, 2015 @ 12:26 pm
  5. LauraD

    Thank you ! Yes I purchased a cross stitch queen size quilt kit from a well known catalog company, and it is stamped with designs & color chart- but the center design on chart was mirrored, the sides & corners are okay . but the stamp in the center motif is the issue. I called the company and they told me this sometimes happens, and they would try to e-mail me the correct way, but I am so frustrated to say the least 🙁 I am not computer savy, but, my husband is and he will try your suggestion, thank you , for your help. as far as the mirror that would be very stressful but if worse comes to worse may have to . Check out rose quilt at herrshners, a beautiful design to say the least , but they need to check on these types of issues before selling them with out telling buyers beware 🙁

    April 30, 2015 @ 1:34 pm
  6. Alicia

    Hi! I’m working a pattern with beads for the first time. When the chart has a bead symbol, do I only put a bead in that stitch, or do I complete a normal cross stitch and add a bead over that normal stitch? Thanks!!

    September 26, 2015 @ 12:06 pm
  7. Jen

    Hi, Alicia. This is a great question. If you’re seeing both a stitch symbol and a bead symbol, I’d do both: make the stitch first and then apply the bead on top.

    But let me give you something else to think about because, yanno, I think it’s fun! Ultimately, every decision like this is yours to make as you choose. To help you make a choice, consider the Big Picture of whatever you’re stitching and let your own logic and taste guide you. Is this image textured? Does it make sense in the context of the image for the bead to sit above the stitching, or does it make sense for the bead to replace the stitching or be sunken into it? Is it a replacement for a stitch? Will using a bead alone allow the background fabric to peek through, and is that something you want?

    Does that help?

    September 26, 2015 @ 1:17 pm
  8. Lisa

    Hi there,

    I’ve just started my first cross-stitch pattern, it is supposed to be for beginners, but it seems quite complicated.

    The ‘instructions’ on the kit consist just of a grid with the design printed on it, showing the colours as they would be in the finished design. There is a brown and a darker brown, but only one colour of brown thread given. On each square are various symbols, a normal ‘x’ , a ‘<' symbol and on the dark brown areas a '2' seems to be shown.

    I think the 'x' is just a normal stitch, but could you tell me what the '<' and '2' symbols might mean?



    November 4, 2015 @ 8:41 am
  9. Jen

    Lisa, as for the two colors of brown on the chart. . . that’s odd. That would indicate two colors of thread in the kit. Are you SURE you don’t have two colors? Sometimes colors can be VERY similar and hard to distinguish. Making matters worse, we don’t all see colors the same way. You might try asking someone else if s/he can make out two colors of brown.

    If, in fact, you have just one color of brown thread in the kit, you have a couple of options. You can stitch both brown symbols with the same thread. Do they really need to be different? You decide. Or you can go out and buy a skein of brown thread that coordinates with what you have but is a different color. Trust your gut; you can make it work! And welcome to the world of re-designing!

    November 4, 2015 @ 9:03 am
  10. Jen

    Hi, Lisa.

    I’m going to guess that the symbols you describe represent the different colors. You have a colored chart, which means that the symbols are backed by colors, which may or may not match the thread colors exactly. The same chart might be rendered in black and white with just the x, < , and 2 symbols.

    All the symbols are for cross stitches. There’s no difference between the x, < , and 2 stitches. The difference is solely in the colors used in that square.

    For more help getting started, you might check out this How To Cross Stitch video. I made it for the Readergirlz, but it works for anyone!

    I hope this helps! Yay, you, for tackling a new craft!

    November 4, 2015 @ 8:55 am
  11. Lisa

    Hi Jen,

    Thank you for your quick response 🙂 although, I’m not sure the symbols represent differently coloured threads, I thought this at first, but the colour underneath the ‘2’ symbol is a very dark brown, for which I don’t seem to have the thread for. The other symbols the ‘x’ are a golden brown (for fur) and a light-gold colour ‘<' for the highlights. I thought it might mean double-stitch which I tried, but that doesn't seem to be the case either, the colour doesn't appear any darker with a thicker stitch.

    November 4, 2015 @ 9:08 am
  12. Jen

    Lisa, if you want, you can take a picture of the chart and email it to me so I can see what you’re seeing. DON’T POST SUCH A PICTURE PUBLICLY! That would violate copyright and could get you in trouble. Send it to mail AT funkandweber DOT com, and I’ll let you know what I think. And I promise to uphold the copyright on my end. 🙂

    November 4, 2015 @ 9:16 am
  13. Lisa

    Haha 🙂 it seems we had a cross-post there 😉
    Okay, looking again at the threads – I can indeed see a thread that is actually a slightly darker shade then the golden-brown colour – and that means I’ve been using the darker brown thread as the lighter brown! 😉 lol Just as well I ordered a replacement kit isn’t it! (I think I miscounted the stitches)

    November 4, 2015 @ 9:18 am
  14. Jen

    Ha! Yep, it happens, all of it: simultaneous posting, using the wrong threads–especially when they’re so hard to distinguish–and miscounting! Some kits will separate all the colors and loop the different-colored threads through holes in a piece of card stock. As you can imagine, that’s super helpful! But it also takes a good bit of time and effort, increasing the cost of the kit.

    Yay, you, for figuring it out and sticking with it!

    November 4, 2015 @ 9:26 am
  15. tammy

    I was wondering if, when a pattern has shaded rows that repeat on the next page, do you cross stitch all of it? Example : this pattern has two shaded rows that repeat, do I sew all 4 or only two?

    July 29, 2016 @ 9:55 am
  16. Jen

    Hey, Tammy. Great question! I need to edit the post to include this.

    No, you don’t stitch the shaded rows. They are there only for reference: It can be hard to align two pieces of a divided chart, and that shaded area helps enormously.

    In your case, just stitch the two rows.


    July 29, 2016 @ 10:15 am
  17. Mary sauerbier

    My cross stitch pattern is in four pieces front and back! Can I duplicate the back and tape to the front to get one piece which would be the entire cross stitch?

    December 21, 2016 @ 4:18 pm
  18. Jen

    Hi, Mary.

    YES! Some designs will even print the suggestion to “make a working copy” on the pattern. Go ahead and copy the pages, tape them together, and mark them up while you work, keeping a clean copy in case you lose the working copy or the dog chews it up. Sometimes you can even enlarge the print.

    Copying for your own use is fine. Copying to share with others is not.

    Great question!

    December 21, 2016 @ 8:33 pm

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